ANIMAL SCENE MAGAZINE
NEW HOPE FOR MALI
By Khrysta Imperial Rara
It’s women’s month, and while enlightened members of the female sex celebrate liberties and rights they have won over the last 100 years, a female elephant still awaits freedom from her concrete prison in Manila zoo.
Mali the elephant suffers from loneliness and cracks on her nails and feet pads, a condition that, in an advanced state, causes so much pain. Incurable foot infection is one of the main reasons that elephants are euthanized, wildlife veterinarian and elephant expert Dr. Henry Richardson said after he inspected Mali in May 2012.
Now 38, Mali has been living alone for more than 30 years. Experts say this is cruel since elephants are social animals.
Despite a presidential directive issued last May 2012 ordering Mali’s transfer to a sanctuary, zoo officials and Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim are resisting the move.
But hope looms in the horizon for Mali. The Philippine House Committee on Natural Resources last month approved on first reading a resolution to send Mali to an elephant sanctuary in Thailand where she will be cared for by experts.
“The entire room was packed with people showing support for Mali’s transfer.
Congresswoman Luzviminda C. Ilagan gave an impassioned speech, followed by a presentation from PETA on Mali’s welfare and the importance of the transfer. Of course Manila Zoo officials opposed the transfer, but they were questioned by members of the Committee who were appalled that so little has been done in the eight months since the Presidential directive was issued,” said Rochelle Regodon of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PeTA Asia).
The Animal Kingdom Foundation (AKF), the Philippine Foundation for Science and Technology, the Philippine Animal Welfare Society (PAWS), Earth Island Institute (EII), Zen Cats, Mother Earth Foundation, and Compassion and Responsibility for Animals (CARA) have also manifested their support for Mali.
Three resolutions pertaining to Mali were actually filed in Congress. Resolution 2530, introduced by Congressman Anthony Rolando Golez, Jr. urged Manila Zoo, the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Committee on Animal Welfare, the Department of Agriculture to process the immediate transfer of Mali to a sanctuary. Resolution 2885, filed by Cong. Rufus Rodriguez and Cong. Maximo Rodriguez, Jr., went even further by urging all relevant agencies, including the City of Manila and the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB) of the DENR to facilitate Mali’s transfer to the Boon Lott’s Elephant sanctuary (BLES) in Thailand.
The last, Resolution 2937 filed by Cong. Luzviminda Ilagan and Cong. Emmi A. de Jesus, urged all these agencies as well as the Office of the President to send Mali to the BLES in Thailand.
“All three resolutions were discussed as one at congress, since all three called for the transfer of Mali,” Rochelle explained.
In the Upper House, Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago and Chiz Escudero are also pushing for the transfer.
More than 30 wildlife vets, elephant experts and advocacy groups from the Philippines and from all over the world have called for Mali’s transfer to BLES. Even Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) President and Archbishop of Cebu Jose Palma, D.D. expressed his “ardent wish” for a new life for Mali.
“Mali might have a few years to live but these remaining years will be more expressive of man’s compassion towards God’s other creatures,” he wrote in a statement.
The following are excerpts from letters and statements of support sent by the experts:
Dr. Jane Goodall, Founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and United Nations’ Messenger of Peace:
“There is nothing more important to an elephant’s emotional and mental health than being with other elephants. Even if Mali were in a sound state physically, keeping her alone in a cramped, barren pen is still ethically indefensible.”
Dr. Marc Bekoff, Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, U.S.A.
“I am certain that if you had had the opportunity, as I have, to witness the emotional lives of wild elephants who are highly intelligent and social animals, you would take immediate action to end Mali’s suffering by transferring her to a sanctuary.”
Dr. Jan Schmidt-Burbach, World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) Asia-Pacific that has consultative status at the Council of Europe and special consultative status with the United Nations:
“Further evidence for the inadequate conditions at zoos for elephants is the high incidence of poor physical health among captive populations. For example, the non-yielding surface of concrete material, poor hygiene and limited ability to move cause frequent foot diseases, making up to 10% of all medical disorders of elephants. In other studies, 50% of assessed zoo elephants had a history of foot diseases or were acutely suffering from them. Keeping a single female elephant in limited space in inadequate captive conditions is also severely damaging to the animal’s mental health.”
Jurgen Schilfarth, Chairman of the European Elephant Group based in Germany:
“Every reputable zoo in the world that houses elephants has a foot care programme, and given how long scientists have known about the importance of this care, it is shocking that the Manila zoo has ignored Mali’s feet for 35 years.”
Julie Woodyer, Campaigns Director, Zoocheck Canada:
“Elephants in captivity need very large enclosures that give them a variety of different ground surfaces, including clean dirt, mulch, sand and probably most importantly, grassy areas and pasture as well as slopes, hills, gullies, scrub, and forest so that they can get enough exercise and mental stimulation. Mali’s enclosure is flat, barren, and made almost entirely of concrete.”
Professor Kendra Ryan, Chairman, International Veterinary Society and President, US Veterinary Education Association:
“The International Veterinary Society and the United States Veterinary Education Association stand ready to launch a social media campaign to advise all tourists from the European Union, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America to boycott vacationing or conducting business in the Philippines, until Mali is transferred to the Thailand sanctuary. We ask that you inform the Manila Zoo that we stand ready to publish information that will directly impact the zoo’s revenue, as long as Mali is held in what we consider to be unacceptable housing facilities.”
Brigitte Bardot, President, Fondation Brigitte Bardot:
“President Benigno Simeon Aquino III seems to favor the transfer of Mali to the sanctuary proposed by PETA but the administration is not facilitating the rescue operation even if it is urgent for this elephant who deserves to live under dignified conditions, conditions that would respond to her needs.”
Otara Gunewardene, World Animal Day Ambassador for Sri Lanka:
“In nature, elephants live in extended family groups, which include all their female relatives, for their entire lives. Births in the herd are joyous occasions, deaths are grieved and youngsters are taught life skills by their elders. Study after study shows that captive elephants who are kept in groups exhibit less repetitive and stereotypical behavior, a sign that they are less stressed by their imprisonment. But Mali is housed completely alone, and in fact, she has not even seen another elephant in about 33 years.”
Claire Oldfather, Campaigns officer, OneKind :
“Elephants are amongst the most intelligent species of animals in the world. Science has revealed their brain structures to be extremely similar to that of humans in terms of complexity.”
Ravi Corea, President, Sri Lankan Wildlife Conservation Society:
“In the wild, elephants roam vast territories over a variety of substrates, but Mali has little room to walk in her concrete pen. This means that her cuticles have become overgrown and the pads of her feet have become cracked, which could lead to infection if they continue to be left untreated…I urge you to do everything in your influence to ensure that Mali is sent to this sanctuary where she can live out the rest of her life in an environment as close to nature as possible, all while being cared for by experts.”
Kate Townsend, Director, Fairly Wild:
“While England and America acknowledge that elephants are desperately unhappy in captivity and thus it is cruel to keep them in zoos, this is a good opportunity for the Philippines to lead the way for the East. At the moment you are getting bad publicity across the world for your treatment of Mali, and it has been a topic of discussion in South Africa for a while now. I urge you to make the right choice and release Mali to a sanctuary. People from so many countries are waiting to see how Mali’s situation is dealt with. Please make the right choice for Mali and become a leader in the East in terms of your treatment of animals.”
Shih, Chien-An, President, Life Conservationist Association:
“Elephants are highly intelligent and need to be in a social environment. They are the giants of the wild with the largest brain of any land creature. To force these animals for commercial use is inhumane. For this reason, many progressive countries and cities around the world have halted the exhibition of elephants in zoo.”
Tove Reece, Executive Director, Voice for Animals Humane Society, Edmonton:
“It is impossible to look at these solitary elephants and not see the loneliness in their eyes or feel their longing to be with others of their own kind.”
Soonrye Yim, Executive Director, Korea Animal Rights Advocates:
“We are deeply concerned that Mali the elephant has not been acknowledged as a sentient being and is still continuing her life in a brutal living environment.”
Fern Demeo, Elephant Project Coordinator of Animal Aid Abroad, WA:
“As a long-term volunteer at various elephant sanctuaries in Thailand, I have witnessed first-hand the long-standing ill-effects of elephants who have been cruelly kept in captivity. Similarly, I have also witnessed how these elephants’ mental and physical wellbeing improves greatly once they are transferred to these sanctuaries. As an endangered species listed in Appendix 1 of CITES, it is vital that we protect the Asian elephant to ensure that they are not only well cared for, but are also protected in order to ensure continuity of the species.”
Debra Probert, Exec Director, Vancouver Humane Society:
“In 2004, the Vancouver Humane Society was involved in assisting to move a lone elephant named Tina who was kept in a local zoo for 31 years. She was suffering from loneliness, depression, stereotypic behavior such as head-swaying, and infected feet from lack of exercise and an appropriate substrate. Tina went to a sanctuary in the U.S. where she was able to live out the rest of her life with other female elephants in a 2700-acre refuge. It was wonderful to see her bathing in the river, roaming free and communicating with her own kind.
I urge you to do whatever is within your power to expedite the transfer of Mali to a sanctuary where she will be able to experience life as it should be. We in Canada will be waiting to hear that you have chosen to do the right thing.”
(END OF MARCH ) COLUMN